English in the World

Info gathered and adapted by MF (sources quoted) 2014. Added links: pronunciation in both US American and British standard English.

EUROPE

  • United Kingdom – the UK: Besides the native English language (spoken by 56,236,000 people, 98% of the population), Welsh is spoken by 26% of the population in Wales, and Scottish Gaelic by about 60,000 in Scotland.
  • Irish Republic: Irish Gaelic is the other official language besides English (spoken by 3,334,000 people).
  • Channel Islands (Guernsey and Jersey) are British crown dependencies, and besides English, French is official, and Norman French is spoken as well.
  • Gibraltar is a dependent territory of the UK, English and Spanish are the official languages, but Italian, Portuguese, what is more, Russian are spoken as well. English is spoken by the 35% of the population: 10,800 people.
  • Isle of Man is a British crown dependency. Besides the native English, Manx Gaelic is spoken.
  • Malta has been independent from Britain since 1964. There are two official languages: English and Maltese, and Italian is spoken as well. English is the native language of 70,600 people, 20% of the poulation.
  • Orkney and Shetland are parts of the UK.

Source: http://lazarus.elte.hu/~guszlev/gb/euro.htm

AFRICA

  • Ascension is a part of the UK as a dependency of Saint Helena.
  • Botswana was a Crown Colony until 1966. Besides English, Setswana is the other official language, and Bantu is spoken as well.
  • Cameroon was a Crown Colony until 1961. English and French are the two official languages, plus 24 major African language groups exist here.
  • The Gambia gained independence from Britain in 1965, English is the official language but Mandinka, Wolof, Fulani and other indigenous vernaculars are spoken.
  • Ghana became an independent country from the UK in 1957. English is the official, but African languages (Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe and Gã) are native.
  • Lesotho was a protectorate until 1966. Sesotho is official besides English, and Zulu and Xhosa are other important languages.
  • Liberia is the country where liberated slaves from the US were settled from 1822. It has been an independent country since 1847. English is the native tongue of about the 96% of the population, and 20 local languages from the Niger-Congo language group are spoken.
  • Malawi was a protectorate until 1964. The two official languages are English and Chichewa.
  • Mauritius became independent from Britain in 1968. English is official, but Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka and Bojpoori are spoken.
  • Namibia used to belong to South Africa. Its final independence was gained in 1990. Although English is the official language, it is spoken only by 10% of the population. Afrikaans is the language of 60%, and German and some indigenous languages like Oshivambo, Herero and Nama are spoken.
  • Nigeria was a Crown Colony until 1960. English is official and spoken as a first language by about 50% of the population (that is 44,000,000 people). The other native languages are Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo and Fulani.
  • Saint Helena is a dependent territory of the UK, English is the native language.
  • The Seychelles gained independence in 1976. English, French and Creole are all official, and English is the first language of about the 2% of the population (2000 people).
  • Sierra Leone was a dependency of Britain until 1961. English is official, but regular use is limited to minority. Mende, Temne and Krio are native languages.
  • South Africa: The two main official languages are English and Afrikaans, plus other nine languages including Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu. English is the first language of only 10% of the population: about 3,000,000 people.
  • Tristan da Cunha is a part of the UK as a dependency of Saint Helena.
  • Uganda has been independent from Britain since 1962. Besides English, Swahili is official, and several indigenous languages such as Luganda, Bantu and Nilotic languages are spoken.
  • Zambia was a colony of Britain until 1964. English is the official, but about 70 indigenous languages (Bantu) are spoken.
  • Zimbabwe gained independence from Britain in 1980. English therefore is official, and Bantu languages like Shona and Sindebele are native.

Source: http://lazarus.elte.hu/~guszlev/gb/afri.htm

AMERICA

  • United States of America – the USA: Besides English that is the native language of about 88% (221 million people), Spanish is the one that is spoken by a sizeable minority.
  • Canada: English and French are both official and native here. 60% of the poulation speaks English, that is about 16,000,000 people.
  • Belize was called the British Honduras until 1981. Spanish, Maya and Garifuna are the languages besides English, which are spoken by 65% of the population (123,000 people).
  • Bermuda is a dependent territory of the UK, English is native here for 95% (56,000 people).
  • The Falkland Islands / Las Maldivas is a dependent territory of the UK, English is the native language.
  • Guyana used to be a Crown Colony (until 1966). English is native here for 75% of the population (567,000 people), and other Amerindian dialects, plus Hindi, Urdu, Chinese and Portuguese are spoken as well.
  • Caribbean islands
    • Anguilla is a dependent territory of the UK, therefore English is not only the official, but the native language as well.
    • Antigua & Barbuda was a British dependency until 1984. Besides English as a native and official language spoken by 95% of the poulation (76,000 people), local dialects are spoken.
    • The Bahamas gained independence from Britain in 1973. English is the native language of 228,000 inhabitants (90% of the population), and Creole is spoken as well.
    • Barbados is the most easterly island of the Caribbean. It was a colony of Britain from 1627 till 1966, so it has been English speaking almost twice as long as Trinidad for example. French is spoken besides English, which is the mother tongue of 257,000 people (100%).
    • British Virgin Islands is a dependent territory of the UK, therefore English is native here (spoken by 11,000 people).
    • Cayman Islands is a dependent territory of the UK, English is native language here (26,000 people).
    • Dominica (not Dominican Republic!) was a colony until 1978. English is native here, but French Creole (patois) is spoken as well.
    • Grenada gained independence from Britain in 1974, and besides English as a native and official language of 101,000 inhabitants, French Creole is spoken.
    • Jamaica is the largest of the English speaking West Indian islands, therefore it is the most populous English speaking territory in the Caribbean area (2,319,000 people). It gained independence from Britain in 1962. Creole is spoken as well.
    • Montserrat is one of the islands that were invaded the earliest by the British, in the 1st half of the 17th century. It is still the dependent territory of the UK. English is said to be spoken with an Irish accent, by 12,000 people.
    • Puerto Rico: Commonwealth associated with the US, English and Spanish are official, but English is not native.
    • Saint Kitts (Christopher) and Nevis gained independence from Britain in 1983. English is the native language of 44,100 people.
    • Saint Lucia was a Crown Colony until 1983. English is native as well as French Creole (patois).
    • Saint Vincent & the Grenadines was a Crown Colony until 1979. English is native (for 115,000) as well as French patois.
    • Trinidad & Tobago gained independence from Britain in 1962. Besides English as a native language, Hindi, French and Spanish are spoken. Listen to Alan talking about his country, Trinidad & Tobago!!
    • Turks and Caicos Islands: dependent territory of the UK, English is a native tongue here.
    • Virgin Islands: Territory of the US, English is native (86,000 speakers) besides Spanish and Creole.

orsicari

Source: http://lazarus.elte.hu/~guszlev/gb/amer.htm

ASIA

  • India: Besides English and Hindi, which is the primary tongue of 30%, there are several official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Sanskrit. Most of them are mutually unintelligible, that is why English has an important role in national, political and commercial communication.
  • Hong Kong restored its independence after British rule in 1997. English and Chinese are the official languages.
  • Pakistan: English is the official language, the lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries. Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi and Pashtu are official as well, and Balochi and other languages are spoken.
  • Philippines gained freedom from the US in 1946. English and Philippino are official, but Spanish and Visajan are spoken as well.
  • Singapore restored its independence after British rule in 1965. English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil all official languages, and Malay is national.

Source: http://lazarus.elte.hu/~guszlev/gb/asia.htm

Oceania

Australia. Because of the British invasion, English is the native language of about 90% (15 million people), but other native languages of the aborigines are spoken as well.

New Zealand put an end to the British invasion in 1907. Besides English (first language of 93% – 3 million people), Maori is the language of the aborigines.

Papua New Guinea gained independence from Australia in 1975. English is official, but spoken only by 1-2%, however, Pidgin English is widespread (66%). Motu and 715 (!) indigenous languages are spoken as well.

Fiji became independent from the British in 1970, but English is not the only official language. Fijian is official as well, and Hindustani and Chinese are spoken.

Cook Islands are in free association with New Zealand, English is official and Maori is spoken as well.

Kiribati was a Crown Colony until 1979. Besides English, the native Gilbertese language is official as well.

Nauru gained independence from Britain in 1968. English is official and widely understood, but used for government and commercial purposes only and is the first language of only 7% of the population (600 people). The other official language is Nauruian.

Solomon Islands were siezed by Britain until 1978. English is the official language but used only by 1-2%, and Melanesian pidgin is the lingua franca amongst 120 indigenous languages.

Tuvalu was a colony until 1978. Besides English, Tuvaluan is official.

Vanuatu gained independence from Britain in 1980. English, French and Bislama (Pidgin) are all official, and Melanesian languages are spoken as well.

Western Samoa belonged to New Zealand until 1962. English and Samoan (Polynesian) are both official languages.

aust

Source: http://lazarus.elte.hu/~guszlev/gb/aust.htm

 

 

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